German Christmas Decorations

Every year at the Continental Congress Units Overseas Luncheon, the DAR Palatinate Chapter sells large quantities of Ritter Sport chocolate, gummy bears and German mustard. But if there were one non-food item that ladies love to buy at our table, it would definitely be German Christmas decorations.

Smokers, nutcrackers, glass ornaments, wooden candle pyramids…

So many of the items Americans associate with Christmas originally come from Germany! Here is the history of just a few of the most popular decorations.

Blown Glass Tree Ornaments


Perhaps today many blown glass ornaments are made in China, the USA or Mexico, but their origin was in Germany. 

In the late 16th century, the small town of Lauscha, in what today is known as Thuringia (Thüringen), gained a reputation for its glass-blowing expertise. The area had actually been producing glass since the 12th century. The conditions were perfect:  plenty of water and sand were available. The first documented manufacturers of glass works were Christopher Müller and Hans Greiner. They founded their glass-blowing factory in 1597. Other glassworks soon followed and the town of Lauscha became an important center for producing a variety of household glass products.

In 1847, a descendent of Hans Greiner began producing glass ornaments in the shape of fruits and nuts. The process involved the use of the blown-glass technique and molds. The ornaments were lined with shiny metal so they looked silvery on the outside. In the 1870’s the ornaments began to sell in Britain, after an illustration of Queen Victoria’s Christmas tree was printed in a London newspaper. (Her German husband Albert had brought the Christmas tree tradition to England when he married her.)

F.W. Woolworth discovered the glass ornaments from Lauscha on a visit to Germany in the 1880’s and began importing them to the United States for sale in his Five and Dime stores. They were hugely popular and Woolworth’s made a fortune by bringing them to US consumers. Perhaps you still have a few of these early ornaments at home, passed down from your parents or grandparents!

Today about 20 small glass-blowing firms still exist in Lauscha.




The earliest German smokers date from the late 1600s in the Miriquidi Forest area (today Erzgebirge) of southeastern Germany. They were originally carved out of a single piece of wood from the local forests. But the tradition of German smokers only really took off in the 1800s, when the tin and silver mines were tapped out and families in the area turned to woodworking once again to make a living.

The quality of the products from the Erzgebirge is very high and the popularity of the wooden craftsmanship was already well known internationally by the time of World War II. Families with names like Glasser, Mueller, Steinbach and Dregeno became world famous for their handmade woodcrafts.

In the beginning, when smokers were carved in one piece, the incense was placed next to them to burn. But after incense cones were developed in the late 1700s, German smokers were made from two pieces where the incense was placed inside the figure and the smoke could emerge from its mouth. Most smokers represent the ‘everyday man’ rather than political or religious figures. The most common smoker figures are working men;  shepherds, miners, farmers, carpenters, etc. Santa smokers are a relatively recent addition.

Do you have a smoker at home?




According to German folklore, nutcrackers were given as keepsakes to bring good luck and protect the home. They were added to social settings as whimsical conversation pieces for guests as they lingered over their dessert, which included sweetmeats like walnuts and hazelnuts. 

Writers and artists celebrated the nutcracker, beginning with the novel ‘The Nutcracker and the King of Mice,’ written sometime between 1776-1782 by E.T. Amadeus Hoffman. The novel became the basis for Tchaikovsky’s famous ballet ‘Nutcracker Suite’, which debuted in St. Petersburg in 1892 and remains a holiday tradition around the world today.

Though nutcrackers have been around for many years, they only became popular in the United States about 70 years ago. The practice of collecting nutcrackers began in the early 1950s, when US GI’s who were stationed in Germany began to visit the Christmas markets and were exposed to the wide variety of nutcrackers for sale there. The popularity of ‘Nutcracker Suite’ greatly added to the interest in nutcrackers throughout America. 

While early nutcrackers depicted images of kings, military officers and upper class people, eventually the range of depicted figures expanded to include working class figures and figures out of German folklore.The marketing strategy of creating limited edition nutcrackers sealed their fate as sought-after collector items. 

According to the firm Steinbach, a leading producer of nutcrackers, the production of one figure can involve up to 130 separate procedures. Curing and drying times can take up to 3-4 years. It is no wonder that they are so treasured and popular at our Units Overseas Luncheon table. They are hand-crafted wooden jewels!

Best wishes for the Holiday Season from the DAR Daughters in the Palatinate Chapter!

Palatinate Chapter Donates Essentials During Historic Humanitarian Airlift

by Milissa Bell Campbell, PM and military civilian spouse

With less than two days notice, the Kaiserslautern Military Community (KMC) of over 50,000 active duty and military civilians’ daily schedules and extended plans were turned upside down as the largest ever, historic humanitarian airlift was put into motion on August 18, 2021 when over  the course of several weeks 34,000 evacuees airlifted from Afghanistan arrived and passed through Ramstein Air Base (RAB), Germany.  Base units sent a good portion of their workforce to the flight-line to support the mission.  Many personnel worked 15 or more hour days, seven days a week.  Normal Base and family life was disrupted with short staffed forces for all aspects of regular mission support.  Families suddenly found medical, dental and other essential offices closed while those active duty and civilians embarked on what was to become a remarkable task.

“Operation Allies Welcome” lasted for 71 days on RAB where 21,000 cots were used in 552 quonset hut like tents as temporary homes. Over one million halal meals were served.  Thousands of medical treatments were administered (See our own Army Lt. Col. Lois Borsay’s report for an amazing boots on the ground account.). Thirty-nine babies took their first breath of crisp air after their birth in their mothers’ interim home.

RAB reported 110 tons of donations were received including 1,000 Euros worth of new items from the Chapter in two installments.  The Chapter’s support was coordinated by Vice-Regent Pam Jensen and prospective member Milissa Bell Campbell.  Both members reside in villages in the Ramstein region.  They kept the home fires burning as their spouses provided mission support during the event.

The first installment was purchased and delivered during a whirlwind shopping expedition by Mr. and Mrs. Vice-Regent Pam Jensen.  Using the donations guidelines, they ventured out onto the economy and filled their vehicle with personal care items, shoes, clothing, toys and snack crackers valued at 750 Euros.  Extreme shopping was followed by delivery to the ad hoc donation center at the old theater on RAB.  From there, active duty personnel took and distributed the items as civilians were not allowed contact with the temporary guests.

The second installment began when a request for donations of essential items was posted on social media September 26 by a military spouse when there were still a few thousand evacuees being housed at RAB.  The earlier donation system ended, but this spouse of a USAF 1st Sgt developed an Amazon wishlist to stream line the donation process for much needed items.  Items were shipped to their home and then delivered to the flight line by the active duty 1st Sgt where the guests were housed.

After consulting with Vice-Regent Jensen, PM Campbell contacted the spouse letting her know to be on the outlook for a delivery from the Amazon wishlist from the Palatinate Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution.  She responded quickly with gratitude.

Using the Amazon wishlist system was much better than the previous which posted the needs on social media for drop off that day on RAB.  All items had to be purchased on the economy which is local village retailers so as not to deplete the Base Exchange (general merchandise store) and commissary (grocery store) for military families and to meet the regulations of on Base purchases.  Within a couple of days of the initial donation drive,  many of the local and regional stores in the KMC were sold out of the needed items such as basic clothing, under garments, shoes and children’s crayons.   Shopping for the guest became very frustrating.

During the initial donation drive,  even with next day delivery, products ordered would not arrive quickly enough to meet the daily changing needs.  The new system using the Amazon wishlist assured the donors that items were actually still needed.  The orders were delivered to the military spouse, sorted and then delivered by her active duty husband to the pods “market” where evacuees used a ticket system to shop for essentials.

In addition to the first donation purchase of approximately 750 Euros, the Chapter purchased 

250 Euros of the following:  9 pairs of women’s trainers, 12 sports bras, 12 pairs children’s socks, 2 cases noodle cups (16 cups).  A personalized delivery note was included with the order stating it was from the Chapter.

After the historic “Operation Allies Welcome” concluded, the Allies Refuge Project group posted comments of gratitude including reference to the Chapter’s donations:

“The expecting women who were craving soup really enjoyed the cup of noodles that some of you purchased.”

“One of the persons who received a pair of shoes happened to be one of our translators at the donation centre.  She said the shoes are very comfortable.”  

Ramstein Air Base is truly the “Global Gateway” as the travelers departed for various safe destinations to begin the next chapter of their lives.  


Photo credits:  D. Jensen and  

Hildegard von Bingen: A Woman Ahead of Her Time

By Karen Rink

If you haven’t heard of Hildegard von Bingen, you really need to learn about this amazing woman, a Catholic nun who had ideas much ahead of her time.  I first heard of her almost 20 years ago when I was learning about wild herbs and herbal medicine, and later purchased the book „The Big Health Book of Saint Hildegard von Bingen“ by Ellen Breindl, published in 2004 (written in German).  

Hildegard’s parents brought her to live in a monastery when she was approximately only 8 years old so that she could learn to become a nun.  Even as a child she had visions which were later interpreted as signs from God.  In the monastery, the nuns lived separated from the monks, they could not participate in activities together, and were considered inferior to the monks.

In the monastery she learned to read and write, studied the Bible, and participated in other cloister activities such as gardening.  She respected nature as a gift from God and learned all she could about each plant, different human illnesses, and how plants could be used as a treatment to cure different conditions.  She eventually began to treat the monks and nuns, then other patients from the local population.

She told the monks about her visions of light, and about the voices which told her to tell others about what she saw.  Because she was strong-willed, independent, had visions, and spoke with God, many young women wanted to join the monastery and learn from her.  The monks did not like that she was becoming popular, well-known, and she suffered critique.  (Today, some say that her visions may have actually been the result of migraine headaches:

Since Hildegard had her own opinions about her mission which conflicted with the monks, she, therefore, had no choice but to leave the monastery with a group of nuns and found her own successful cloister, Kloster Rupertsberg in Bingen.  Here she was able to grow in all of her areas of interest until her death.  Unfortunately the beautiful cloister was destroyed during the 30 Years War by Swedish troops: 

Some of her many talents included:

++the composition of eclesiastical music for which she is well-known even today.

++making prophecies which you may listen to here:  We Were Warned: The Prophecies of St. Hildegard of Bingen – Bing video

++her opinions about animals.  About dogs, she said:  „Give a Man a Dog for the Health of his Soul.“

++producing wine, declaring it to be medically useful, and the nuns still produce it there to this day.  See St. Hildegard Abbey:

++believing in the balance of humanity, the world, and nature, something that is still extremely important to us all today.

Finally in 2012, Pope Benedict declared Hildegard a Saint and Doctor of the Catholic church since her writings after more than 900 years still reach the people.  

Even today her teachings persist and are popular.  The Rupertsberg Hildegard Society gives workshops where some of her original herbal remedies and food recipes are prepared in the still-existing stone cellar rooms of Hildegard’s destroyed cloister.  See video in German:

If you don’t already know her, it could be that Hildegard von Bingen lived from 1098 to 1179, and she was truly, in so many ways, a multi-talented, visionary woman ahead of her time.

Find Hildegard’s preferred wild fruits and herbs, plus healthy recipes here:

German television ZDF made a film about her (in German language) in 2019:

A film was also made in English; click here for rental or purchase information:

unruly mystic hildegard movie doc (

A Report on the Afghan Travelers in Germany

A Report from Palatinate Chapter member Lois Borsay, Registered Army Nurse working with the Afghan Travelers at the Ramstein Air Base.

“For nearly a week beginning 3 September, I had the privilege to work with the Afghan Travelers, as we now refer to them. The official program is now called OAW (Operation Afghan Welcome). I first volunteered in one of the airplane hangars at Ramstein Air Base (RAB) where approximately 700 travelers were living, eating & sleeping on military cots placed side-by-side in rows with no space in between the cots. We handed out Pampers in every size, individual packets of shampoo, shower gel, diaper cream, wipes, toilet paper and laundry soap. We prepared formula from an assortment of powdered formula cans in a bottle exchange program to prevent infant diarrhea. We also prepared formula for toddlers as well to ensure they were getting the most nutrition we could provide. Volunteers would take the bags of dirty bottles to clean/sanitize and return for re-issue. 

After that first day, I became the head of a team of 9 from Bavaria including: a male physician, a female physician assistant (PA), 6 medics and a Registered Nurse (me). We worked 12 hour shifts in the busiest medical tent at Rhine Ordinance Barracks (ROB) on the Army side of the program. We saw over 100 cases per shift for usually minor medical issues: cough, runny nose, scrapes & cuts. We were always on the look-out for more serious cases which we would transfer to Landstuhl Medical Center for evaluation and treatment.  However, we didn’t actively seek out cases because the plan was for Germany to be a short-term stop-over for 7-10 days. We set up the baby bottle exchange program there and offered Pampers and fresh fruit.  The work was exhausting but fulfilling

What can Daughters to do help? There are locations near Ft Lee, VA, Camp Atterbury, IN and Ft McCoy, WI and others where large groups of Afghan travelers are being processed.  They need clothing, shoes, blankets, towels, etc.  DAR chapters will know where groups are being located and should reach out to the Red Cross in those communities to ascertain what is really needed at each location. Chapters may also be able, at some point, to sponsor a family. I’m unsure of how this process works, but I see that as a long-term way to ensure these families have a support system, get education, job-training and become self-sufficient.”


An Accident That Changed the World: The Discovery of X-Rays

In the fall of 1895, physicist William Conrad Roentgen, Rector at the University of Würzburg,  was studying cathode rays in his laboratory. In the course of his experiments, he noticed that a screen set at some distance from the tubes he was studying was glowing. All previous research had indicated that cathode rays could not maintain their power to produce florescent light at that much distance. Fascinated, he locked himself away in his lab and began to experiment with the new rays. 1

These strange new rays could not be refracted with water, nor could he concentrate them by standard methods. He found that the rays could pass through thick layers of rock salt, electrolytic salt powder and zinc dust, unlike visible light. He concluded that these unusual rays were not susceptible to regular refraction or reflection. Unlike cathode rays, they were also unsusceptible to magnetic deflection. His experiments demonstrated that these rays produced a mysterious light that could pass through most substances but leave shadows of solid objects. He called them ‘X-Rays’ because X stood for ‘unknown’. 2

Three days before Christmas he brought his wife into the laboratory and they emerged with a photograph of the bones in her hand and the ring on her finger. He published the photograph on the 28th of December and by the 16th of January in 1896, the New York Times announced the discovery of a ‘new form of photography, which revealed hidden solids, penetrated wood, paper and flesh and exposed the bones of the human frame’. Within a month of Roentgen’s announcement, doctors were using X-rays to locate bullets in human flesh and photograph broken bones. 3

Roentgen’s accidental discovery of X-rays paved the way for the development of today’s broad spectrum of imaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computer tomography (CT), ultrasound and echocardiography, among others.

Rontgen received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1901. He never sought honors or financial profit for his research. He rejected a title that would have given him entry into German nobility and donated his Prize money to his university. Roentgen never patented his discovery to ‘ensure that the world could freely benefit from his work’. He was nearly bankrupt at the time of his death due to inflation following World War I. 4 

Photo from Google Photos

Content Sources:

  1. ‘Early History of X Rays’, Alexi Assumes, Beem Line Summer, 1995
  2. ‘History of Medicine: Dr. Roentgen’s Accidental X-Rays’,
  3. Ibid source 1
  4. ‘November 8, 1895: Roentgen’s Discovery of X-Rays’, American Physical Society, APS News November 2001 (Volume 10, Number 10)  

Germany Experiences the Flood of the Century: A Personal Perspective from the Destroyed Town of Bad Münstereifel

Bad Münstereifel in the Christmas Season


Bad Münstereifel is often referred to as the ‘Rothenburg ob der Tauber’ of the North Rhine Westphalia.  A medieval walled town with splendid examples of half-timbered buildings, it is a tourist magnet filled with picturesque charm. 

Nestled in the Erft River valley, the town and river are surrounded by mountainous pine forests.  In town, cobblestone walkways link together a small collection of shops and restaurants that invite guests to relax and enjoy the beautiful countryside, clean air and its small city charm.

Or at least it did…until the night of July 14, 2021 when an extreme weather event led to unprecedented flooding throughout the entire region.

In just a couple of hours, Bad Münstereifel and many other villages and towns in the area were destroyed. The Erft River became a raging seven meter (23 foot) high wall of water sweeping away everything in its path: cars, sidewalks, buildings, cemeteries, and sadly 180 lives. 

Bad Münstereifel on July 15, 2021

Shock, Solidarity, Resolve

These three words sum up how the people of Bad Münstereifel reacted when they awoke to the carnage of the night before. The mayor could only describe the ruin as being ‘like after a war’.  Many of the 4,000 residents of the walled town had to flee their homes, leaving all possessions behind. The next day their homes were full of mud and water, some up to the second floor and a lifetime of memory-filled possessions destroyed.

The people fortunate enough not to have been in the line of the ‘tsunami’ were quick to roll up their sleeves, pull on their rubber boots and gloves, and help the less fortunate. Already one day after the event, thousands of volunteers were helping empty cellars of mud-drenched clutter, shovel mud from floors, and human-chain buckets of muck out to the streets, where other volunteers wheelbarrowed the refuse to giant piles. 

Bad Münstereifel provided warm food, blankets and arranged temporary housing for the stricken.  Complete strangers sat and held hands with weeping families, exhausted children and disoriented older residents.

An incredible solidarity grew among the citizens of Bad Münstereifel to work selflessly, efficiently and quickly anywhere they were needed before more harm occurred due to mold and health hazards.  This solidarity quickly led to a unified resolve to clean up the damage and bring  Bad Münstereifel back onto its feet.

Now, several weeks later, most of the initial refuse has been removed and is temporarily stored somewhere before it will be sorted and properly disposed of. 

The Bundeswehr (Army) soldiers, technical specialists (Technisches Hilfswerk) and volunteer fire departments now have the job of pumping out the remaining mud, rebuilding bridges and walkways, and removing interior walls that have been damaged by leaked benzine or fecal matter in the flood water. Two-and-a-half weeks later, the residents finally have electricity and water. There is still no Internet and drinking water must be boiled.

Chancellor Angela Merkel in Bad Münstereifel

What We Lost

In Münstereifel there were four deaths reported in an outlying neighborhood, but none within the city walls. It was amazing that there were so few lives taken; though even one is too many.

However one thing we came close to losing was our history.  The entire history of Bad Münstereifel as preserved in its historical archive which was kept in the basement of the municipal building only a block from the Erft.  The municipal building was also a victim of the surging flood.

A team of volunteers worked for over eight days to remove the mud-stained, sopping documents and book cartons from the basement archive. It was a race against time…and mold. Each document was examined by the archive historian. Those that he deemed to be savable were passed by human-chain out to tables, where they were sprayed down with hoses to remove the worst of the dirt. They were then packed in clear plastic foil, labeled and placed in boxes. These boxes were then taken to a large warehouse where the documents were frozen to prevent further mold. Later they will be dried, cleaned, treated, laid flat and reassembled into books according to their classification. The job is mammoth: there are thousands and thousands of pages.

The oldest saved book of historical source material on Bad Münstereifel in the archive was from the 15th Century. Other invaluable archive contents saved include original deeds, court orders, council rulings and lists of births/deaths and marriages back to the 17th Century.  Historical documentation of the Jewish population, the merchant guilds and the social activities, the business of the Catholic Church, as well as the French and Prussian governing periods are also all very important sources about Bad Münstereifel’s past that were saved.

We can only hope that at least part of the richly documented past of Münstereifel will be restored and is not lost forever. 

Volunteers Helping With the Cleaning of Historical Documents

If you would like to know a little more about the history of Bad Münstereifel, here is a short summary:

A Short History 

The history of Bad Münstereifel goes back almost 1200 years to the founding of a monastery in the upper Erft River valley in 830. Originally inhabited by Benedictine monks, the ‘Novum Monasterium’ grew in size and importance. In the 12th Century the monastery converted to a collegiate church with priests instead of monks. It became a powerful administrative center for many villages in the Eifel and remained so until it was secularized in 1803.

Münstereifel was not only an important clerical center. It was also an important economic center with the right to hold markets, make coins and collect tolls as early as the end of the 9th Century. A court system quickly evolved to represent the merchants versus the ‘worldly’ affairs of the church. This was unique for the time: in 1454, Münstereifel already had its own constitution.

Under flourishing market conditions, local wool weavers developed a trade and guild that were widely respected for the quality of their goods. Many of their goods were sold to markets in Cologne, but they also were sold at international markets in key European cities.

Following the Reformation, Münstereifel invited the Jesuits to build a second Catholic Church in town. Later the Carmelites also came to Münstereifel, solidifying the church’s strength and as a center of Catholic culture and faith. A system of higher education (Gymnasium) was built  up by the churches, attracting young men to learn Latin and liberal arts subjects like theology, philosophy and Ancient Greek. This was also singular for this area of the Eifel.

Following the Napoleonic Wars in 1794, the French assumed control of Münstereifel. They introduced many attributes like population counts, house numbering and the establishment of taxation. In 1803 they secularized the Catholic church, leading to the demise of the church’s previous power. 

Today Bad Münstereifel is a ‘Kurort’, meaning that it is characterized by healthy air and wellness treatments. (It is a Kneipp center. This is where the ‘Bad’ in Bad Münstereifel comes from). In the past couple of years the town has developed a booming little outlet center in some of the half-timbered buildings, which gives it a unique profile for shopping and dining in a small and pretty environment.

Washington Crossing the Delaware

Photo Source: Google

Washington Crossing the Delaware is the iconic painting of America during the Revolutionary War. There were actually three paintings in the original series, created by the German-American artist Emanuel Leutze.

About the Painter and the Original Versions of the Painting

Emanuel Leutze grew up in America, but returned to Germany as an adult, where he lived in a town near Düsseldorf. He conceived the idea for Washington Crossing the Delaware during the European Revolutions of 1848, hoping to encourage liberal reformist movements through the example of the American Revolution (Wikipedia).  

As he had no first-hand American references, he had to use American tourists as models and depicted the landscape based on the scenery along the Rhine where he lived (ibid). He finished the first version of the painting in 1850, utilizing the artistic help of Düsseldorf Art Academy painters like Worthington Whittredge and Andreas Achenbach (ibid). Unfortunately, the first version of the painting was damaged by fire. Many years later the painting was restored and was acquired by the Kunsthalle Bremen, where it remained until destroyed by an Allied forces bombing in the Second World War. 

The second painting was a full-sized copy of the original. Leutze began the painting in 1850 and placed it on exhibition in New York in 1851. More than 50,000 people viewed the painting. According to Wikipedia, it was bought by Marshall O. Roberts for $10,000 (roughly $350,000 today). After changing hands several times, the painting was donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City by John Stewart Kennedy in 1897 (ibid).

The frame shown in the above photo is based on the original designed by Leutze. The carved eagle-topped crest alone is 14 feet wide!

A third and smaller version of the original painting hung in the White House for many years. In 2014 it was acquired by Mary Burrichter and Bob Kierlin, founders of the Minnesota Marine Art Museum in Winona, Minnesota.  The painting is currently on display in the American collection there (ibid).

What the Painting Depicts

The painting Washington Crossing the Delaware depicts Washington’s surprise attack on a Hessian garrison of roughly 1,400 soldiers located around Trenton, New Jersey on Christmas night in 1776 (

Hoping to raise sagging morale with a quick victory, Washington planned to attack from three different crossings. One force of 1,200 Philadelphia militia and 600 Continentals under Col. Cadwalader was to cross near Burlington, NJ. General James Ewings’s forces of 800 Philadelphians were to cross at Trenton and take up defense positions. Washington planned to cross with 2,400 soldiers roughly 10 miles north of Trenton (ibid).

But nature turned against their plans. A major snow and sleet storm developed and both of the first two attacks were  thwarted by the ice-choked river. Washington succeeded  in crossing, but was delayed by three hours. The men in his expedition were tired, hungry and poorly dressed for the storm. Washington contemplated turning back but later wrote, “…as I was certain there was no making a retreat without being discovered and harassed on repassing the River, I determined to push on at all Events”(ibid).

Although the painting of Washington Crossing the Delaware depicts him in a rowboat, the actual vessels they used were sturdy, shallow draft cargo boats of 40 to 60 feet in length. A great amount of artillery was transported with the soldiers, including 18 cannons, horses and ammunition (ibid). Though the painting suggests that the crossing was at a wide point in the river, the actual crossing point was less than 300 yards wide. The boats were probably fixed to a wire strung across the river (ibid).

Some Wrong Details Added for Impact

Art critic Isaac Kaplan points out in his article ‘This Iconic American History Painting Gets the Facts Wrong’ ( that if Washington had truly been perched on the boat’s edge as depicted, he would have fallen into the water and drowned. Because the boats were shallow-bottomed, it is likely though that all passengers would have been standing, because the bottoms would have been cold and covered in water. 

The lighting in the painting suggests that the attack is happening at daybreak. Although the actual attack was in the night, we can perhaps interpret this as an intended metaphor for the dawn of new hope in the revolutionary movement. 

The flag that Washington is holding in his hand is not the one used in 1776, when the crossing took place. It was adopted about a year later (ibid). Also the icebergs are probably not a realistic rendering of the ice sheets that form on the Delaware in the winter. Again, this might be an intended metaphor for the hardships of the war.  

Another clearly intended metaphor is the representation of the people in the boat. They represent a cross-section of the American colonies, including a man in a Scottish bonnet and a man of African decent facing backward next to each other in the front, western riflemen placed at the bow and stern, two farmers near the back, and an androgynous rower in a red shirt, possibly a woman in a man’s clothing. There is also a man at the back of the boat in Native American clothing. (Wikipedia).

What the Crossing Might Have Actually Looked Like

No-one would ever want to deny Washington Crossing the Delaware is iconic American art. But recently, the historical painter Mort Künstler was commissioned by an American Congressman to make a painting based on the historical truths of the crossing. After much research on location and using the guidance of local historians, Mr. Künstler has provided us with a different depiction of the event. If you would like to look at his rendering, here is a link to an article in a New York  Times blog:


Germany’s Forests and America

Today Germans Are Tree Huggers, But Weren’t Always

Germany has always been associated with woods and forests. Most people have heard of the ‘Black Forest’, and the stories of Hansel and Gretel and Little Red Riding Hood are traditional  German fairy tales most of us know from childhood.

Certainly the German forests have often been feared. This phenomenon dates back to Roman times, where the Roman historian Tacitus described the forests in Germany as, ‘terrible, filled with ugly swamps’, which led him to conclude that the Germanic tribes were similarly primitive (1). Throughout the Middle Ages, Germany’s inhospitable woodlands were believed to be full of robbers, ghosts and witches.

But the Romantic Movement in the 19th Century led to a transformation of the German forest’s image (2). Forests became a dominant theme in poetry, painting and music — including the fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm. The forest became a political symbol for German unity, reinforcing the identity of Germans as a robust and nature-loving folk. After the second world war, the forest continued to gain in popularity as a place of respite from hectic city life. Today German forests are a central part of the country’s identity and culture. They are the defining symbol of Germany’s  sustainable future.


Forests in Germany: Facts

Roughly one-third of Germany is covered with forests. This represents about 11.4 million hectares (3). The composition of German forests is 60% coniferous and 40% deciduous. The most common trees are spruce (28%), pine (23%), beech (15%) and oak (10%). Of these, beech and oak are the indigenous species, and would account for over 90% of all trees in German forests if conifers weren’t present. The reason that conifers are so prevalent in German forests today has to do with their relatively quick growing cycles and suitability for a quick sales cycle. 

A conifer is mature and ready to be felled in just thirty years. The non-conifer deciduous species require much longer to mature before they can be felled and sold. 

The reason that conifers grow quickly has to do with their relatively flat root system, which allows them to absorb water quickly to accelerate growth. Deciduous trees have much deeper root systems that absorb water more slowly. The advantages that deciduous trees have versus conifers are that they a) are more resistant to falling down in wind storms, and b) are more resistant to drought. With their shallow root systems, conifers are easily knocked over in a major wind storm and are prone to dryness in periods of drought. 

Source: Google, unknown.jpeg

Climate Change and German Forests

Germany has experienced sustained dryness in recent years that has severely weakened its forests. The years 2018-2019 were particularly bad. And due to their root system, as described above, the conifers suffered disproportionately. 

According to German national television, roughly 400,000 hectares of forest were destroyed by the end of 2020, mainly conifers (4). To put this in perspective, the size of the area lost is roughly the size of Rhode Island, or if you prefer football, the size of 247,000 football fields!

Because the trees were weakened by drought, they produced less resin than needed to ward off insect predators. The bark beetle (Borkenkäfer), a widely disseminated predator beetle in the USA, had the perfect conditions to invade and cause a plague in the weakened German conifers.

How do the beetles kill the trees? First they lay their eggs in the bark. If the tree is too weak to produce enough protective resin, the eggs destroy the tree’s bast layer, which is the innermost vascular layer of the bark that transports sugar produced by photosynthesis to other parts of the tree. This interrupts the nutritional flow of the tree, slowly starving it. The second contribution bark beetles make toward destroying the tree relates to the fungi they carry when they settle in the bark to lay their eggs. Theses fungi accelerate the death process in the already weakened trees. 

Trees breathe CO2 and release oxygen into the atmosphere. When a trees die, it not only reduces  forestry revenue, but more importantly also reduces the possibility to absorb atmospheric CO2, a critical component of global warming. 

Source: Google, unknown-1 jpeg

America is Part of the Solution for German Forests

Global warming means that Germany’s forests must be made up of tree species that are better at  resisting drought to survive and remain sustainable. 

North America offers several tree species that are being introduced in Germany for their greater resistance to drought. Some of the prominent species include: Douglas Fir (NW America), Red Oak (East Coast USA), Eastern White Pine (East Coast USA) and Grand Firs (NW USA) (5).

 In many parts of Germany, the government is subsidizing the planting of these hardy American species in the hope that the forests can be made better sustainable. 


At the moment industrial wood is in short supply in both Germany and the United States. CNN reports that wood prices in the USA have risen by 500% since early April 2020, due to a boom in the housing market (6). The availability of wood for construction in Germany is also said to be in short supply. 

In the relatively near future, the international wood crisis should ameliorate itself. However, a positive longterm outlook for German forests will depend on planting and maintaining sustainable forests worldwide as part of the fight to reduce CO2 levels around the planet. Here every nation in the world has an equal interest.  


  1., ‘The Origins of the Germans’ Special Relation to the Forest’
  2. Ibid
  4. ZDF, German national TV station
  6., ‘Why Lumber Prices are so High…’ 

And Here is an index of the great recipes that the Palatinate Cookbook offers:

Appetizers & Beverages

Arugula Crush, Sherrill Koken

Ava’s Happy Sunshine at the Party Dip, Ava Madison

Bacon Wrapped Chestnuts (Maronen im Speckmantel), Pamela Jensen

Bacon-Wrapped Brussel Sprouts with Creamy Lemon Dip, Louise Dillard

Baked Onion Spread, Mary Chase

Baked Pimiento Cheese, Jan Vance

Bonn Olympic Hot Artichoke Dip, Susan Cothran

Cathy’s Corn Dip, Louise Dillard

Country Chicken Bal,l Janelle Preman

Cranberry Gluhwein, Pamela Jensen

Easy Cream Cheese, Karen Rink

Elderberry Liqueur, Karen Rink

Family Wassail, Karen Woodworth

Fireside Hot Chocolate, Donita Dupslaff

Fruited Mint Tea, Mary Chase

Gluhwein (“Mulled Wine”) (several variations), Pamela Jensen

Hot Artichoke Dip, Laura Trimberger

Hot Cheese and Crab Fondue, Alice Schauss

Hot Chocolate Mix, Vickie Burns

Julie’s Famous Chicken Wings, Julie Black

Kinderpunsch (Children’s Punch – nonalcoholic), Pamela Jensen

Meatballs in a Crockpot, Sharon Garrison

Mint and Citrus Tea, Karen Woodworth

Old English Cheese Ball, Lynn Schiel

Open Tostada Party Plate, Nancy Black

Pâté My Way, Valorie Strickler

Pesto Hots, Judy Hatcher

Quark Dip, Pamela Jensen

Rudesheimer Coffee (German Coffee with Brandy) , Susan Cothran

Sausage Ball,s Anita Allex

Shirley’s Texas Caviar, Shirley Herzer

Shrimp Butter, Joanne Malene

Sparkling Punch, Mary Chase, Vickie Burns

Sun-Dried Tomato Spread, Valorie Strickler

Texas Caviar, Louise Dillard

Texas Christmas Pickles, Louise Dillard

White Cheddar Cheese Spread, Mary Chase

Wine Bar Nut Mix, Sherrill Koken

Zucchini Appetizer, Joanne Malene

Bread and Muffins

7-Up Biscuits, Louise Dillard

Apfelpfannkuchen (Apple Pancakes for Sunday Brunch) (p), Carol Hoernle

Apple Pumpkin Muffins, Beverly Schuele

Baked Oatmeal, Thora Goodnight

Banana Bread, Alice Schauss

Banana Luncheon Bread, Hilda Pappas

Blueberry Muffins, Donita Dupslaff

Blueberry Muffins to Die For, Marsha Young

Bobsha’s Berliner Pfannekuchen (Donuts), Joyce W. Holmes

Ginger-Blueberry Scones, Karen Woodworth

Grandma Abbie Bushong’s Homemade White Bread, April Legler

Grandma’s Irish Soda Bread, Sharon Garrison

Honey Wheat Germ Bread, Thora Goodnight

Martin’s Zucchini Bread, Donita Dupslaff

Mom’s Cinnamon Sweet Rolls  (m), Susan M Fowler

Monkey Bread, Lynn Schiel

No Knead, Dutch Oven Bread, Karen Rink

Rhubarb Bread, Martha Zimmerman

Sausage Brunch Braid, Judi Rogers

Scottish Gingerbread Squares (Vegan), Hilda Pappas

Spread for Garlic Bread Ramona, Hopping Kechelen

Strawberry Quick Bread, Karen Woodworth

Sunday Morning Banana Bread, Karen Woodworth

Super Moist Butter Nut Muffins, Carol Moldenhauer

Zwieback, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Soups, Stews, Salads and Sauces

24-Hour Salad, Nancy Black

American (Peasants) Oyster Stew, Deborah Halver-Hanson

Aunt Sandy’s Chicken Noodle Soup, Joanne Malene

Blueberry Salad, Judi Rogers

Broccoli Salad, Sharon Garrison

Broccoli, Bacon, Lettuce & Tomato Salad, Judy Hatcher

Bunter Chinakohlsalat (Colorful Napa Cabbage Salad), Pamela Jensen

Caramel Apple Salad, Laura Trimberger

Cauliflower Salad, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Cheri’s Coleslaw, Cheri Eisen

Chili, Lynn Schiel

Chili with Rice, Lori Elling

Co-Cola Salad (can also be a dessert), Ellen Ford Cook

Coal Miner’s Stew, Alice Schauss

Cooked Cold Rice Salad, Joyce W. Holmes

Copycat Zuppa Toscana Soup, Louise Dillard

Cranberry Orange Salad, Karen Woodworth

Cranberry Salad, Hilda Pappas

Cranberry Salad (Relish), Nancy Black

Cream of Asparagus Soup, Sherrill Koken

Curried Lentil Soup, Mary Chase

Deftige Kohlrabi-Kartoffel Suppe (Hearty Kohlrabi-Potato Soup), Pamela Jensen

Erbsensuppe (Pea Soup,) Karen Rink

Feuriger Gulasch (Fire Goulash), Pamela Jensen

Fresh Spinach Salad, Ramona Hopping Kechelen

Fresh Tomato Salsa, Linda Ingalls

Frozen Cranberry – Pineapple Salad, Mary “Larry” Hines

Fruit Salad with Pineapple Dressing, Jan Vance

German Potato Salad, Pamela Jensen

Goulash a la Austria, Pamela Jensen

Grandmother’s Potato Soup, Cynthia “Ricki” McKinney

Grape Salad, Linda Ingalls

Gulaschsuppe, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

Halloween Chili, Laura Trimberger

Ham & Bean Soup, Donita Dupslaff

Kartoffelsuppe (Potato Soup), Karen Rink

Kohlsalat mit Rosa Pfeffer (Cabbage salad with pink pepper) (vegan), Pamela Jensen

Lamb Stew, Monica Mills

Lemon Tutti Fruiti Salad, Mary Chase

Light Tomato Sauce, Donna Weaver

Lime Salad, Mary Chase

Louise’s Cream of Chicken Noodle Soup, Louise Dillard

Mount Vernon Inn Restaurant Peanut Soup, Mary  B. White

Orange Delight Salad, Faye Kassing

Ribbons of Romaine with Pinon Dressing, Donna Weaver

Rosemary Chicken Salad, Judi Rogers

Rustic Potato Soup, Trudy Alexander

Senate Bean Soup (From the U.S. Senate Restaurant since 1903), Judy Hatcher

Simple Carrot Salad, Ramona Hopping Kechelen

Spiced Butternut Squash Soup, Mary Chase

Spinach Strawberry Salad, Laura Trimberger

Stir Fry Sauce, Lynn Schiel

Strawberry Jell-O Salad, Sharon Garrison

Taco Soup, Lynn Schiel

Three Bean and Beef Chili, Louise Dillard

Trucker Beans for Picnic or Barbecue, Joanne Malene

Turkey Salad, Mary Chase

Venison Stew, Sherrill Koken

Watermelon Salad, Mary Chase

Main Courses: Beef, Pork and Lamb

Beef Roulade Spätzle (Noodles for the beef gravy),Carol Hoernle

Beef Rouladen, Carol Hoernle

Bierocks Sandra, Langley Leshikar

Boeuf Bourguignon, Karen Rink

Boiled Beef with Herb Mayonnaise, Sherrill Koken

Boston Market Style Meatloaf, Louise Dillard

Brisket, Faye Kassing

Classic Beef Tenderloin, Mary Chase

Classic Cola-Glazed Ham, Vickie Burns

Creamy Ham Casserole, Donita Dupslaff

Easy Way Sauerbraten, Valorie Strickler

Good Old Fashioned Meatloaf, Deb Miner

Halupki (Stuffed Cabbage Rolls), Lynn Schiel

Hawaiian Ham Sliders, Louise Dillard

Italian Sausage Casserole, Joanne Malene

Laura’s Carolina Style Meatloaf, Laura Laye-Duncan

Mary Stannard’s Corned Beef and Cabbage, Deb Miner

Mom’s Dutch Meatloaf, Sharon Garrison

Mozzarella Meatloaf, Laura Trimberger

Oriental Steak, Korean Style Nancy Black

Pepperoni Pizza (m), Karen Woodworth

Pork Chop Piccata with Spaghetti, Louise Dillard

Pork Tenderloin with Prunes, Sherrill Koken

Pumpkin Macaroni and Cheese with Ground Meat, Sherrill Koken

Rakott Kaposzta or Layered Sauerkraut Transylvania Style, Lois Borsay

Roast Beef with Ginger Ale, Alice Schauss

Sauerbraten made with Beef (needs 4-5 days marination before cooking!), Sherrill Koken

Sausage Lasagna, Anita Allex

Southern Barbecue Porkchops, Vickie Burns

Stew Meat, Alice Schauss

Taco Rice, Susan M Fowler

Teriyaki Hawaiian, Faye Kassing

Main Courses: Seafood, Poultry, Pasta and Casseroles

Alabama-Style Shrimp Bake, Alice Schauss

Artichoke-stuffed Chicken Breasts, Joanne Malene

Aunt Jenny’s Greek Dressing, Hilda Pappas

Barbecue Chicken, Donita Dupslaff

Butter Chicken, Diana A. Van Buren Lantz

Chicken Almond Casserole, Mary Chase

Chicken and Broccoli Casserole, Karen Woodworth

Chicken Breasts with Brandy, Leona Ware

Chicken Curry Casserole, Susan Cothran

Chicken Enchiladas, Joanne Malene

Chicken Pot Pie My Way, Louise Dillard

Chicken Tetrazzini, Mary “Larry” Hines

Coq au Vin, Karen Rink

Coqulles Saint Jacques, Thora Goodnight

Crockpot Lemon Chicken, Joanne Malene

Easy Homemade Pizza, Amanda Wendt

Enchilada Casserole, Linda Ingalls

Fantastic (and Simple!) Baked Salmon, Valorie Strickler

Green Chicken Enchiladas, Jan Vance

Hash Brown Casserole II, Beverly Schuele

Hash Brown Quiche, Mary Chase

Herring in Cream Sauce (Rhineland recipe), Sherrill Koken

Hot Chicken Salad, Jan Vance Jan Vance

Hot Chicken Salad, Sheri Dagg Sheri  Dagg

Hot Chicken Sandwich, Alice Schauss

Hunter Style Chicken, Lynn Schiel

Käse Spätzle mit Zwiebeln (Spätzle Noodles with Cheese and Onions), Karen Rink

Mussels with Tomatoes and Cannelloni Beans, Joanne Malene

Pete’s Smoked Mac & Cheese, Milissa Bell Campbell

Quiche Lorraine, Karen Rink

Salmon with Sautéed Leeks, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

Sausage and Sauerkraut Bake, Mary Chase

Seafood Lasagna, Thora Goodnight

Shrimp Gumbo, Tiffin Fox

Shrimp Scampi, Alice Schauss

Slow Cooker, Foil Baked Tilapia, Lynn Schiel

Slow-Cooker Bolognese, Louise Dillard

Snow on the Mountain, Diana A. Van Buren Lantz

Spicy Shrimp Casserole, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

Spinach Lasagna, Laura Trimberger

Sunday Brunch Casserole, Jan Vance

Sunny’s Tuna Noodle Casserole, Louise Dillard

Taco Casserole, Lynn Schiel

Three Meat, Mushroom and Four Cheese Lasagna (m), Milissa Bell Campbell

Vegetables and Vegetarian Dishes

3 Versions of Dumplings, Sherrill Koken

Arkansas Green Beans, Mary Ford

Baked Cinnamon Carrots, Mary “Larry” Hines

Baked Squash (old and new methods), Deborah Halver-Hanson

Cola Sauerkraut, Mary Chase

Company Style Potatoes, Lynn Schiel

Corn Pudding, Vickie Burns

Corn Soufflé, Mary Chase

Cowboy Caviar, Jan Vance

Eggplant with Crispy Coating, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

Fresh Garden Medley, Lynette (Lynn) Theisen

Fried Cabbage, Louise Dillard

German Sweet and Sour Red Cabbage, Pamela Jensen

Goldenrod Green Beans, Nancy Black

Green Beans, Oven Roasted with Pecans, Sharon DeMuth

Grumbeerkiechle mit Apfelmus (Potato Pancakes), Karen Rink

Hash Brown Potato Casserole, Jan Vance

Impossible Zucchini-Tomato Pie, Carol Moldenhauer

Jiffy Corn Pudding, Thora Goodnight

Marinated Cucumbers, Nancy Black

Marinated Vegetables (Vegan), Hilda Pappa

Microwave Baked Sweet Potato, Donita Dupslaff

Mom’s Special Green Beans, Sharon DeMuth

Onion Casserole, Janelle Johnson

Pat’s Sweet Potatoes, Hilda Pappas

Pesto Artichoke Pizza (m), Karen Woodworth

Potato Rösti from the Oven, Sherrill Koken

Red Cabbage, Carol Hoernle

Rosemary Potatoes, Valorie Strickler

Rotkohl (Red Cabbage), Pamela Jensen

Spanish Rice in Pat Chase’s Style, Mary Chase

Steamed Brussel Sprouts and Carrots with Honey Mustard Sauce, Louise Dillard

Vegan Quinoa & Black Bean Salad, Hilda Pappas

Veggies in Wine Sauce (plus Vegan option), Hilda Pappas

Desserts, Pies, Cakes and Cookies

“Best of the Wurst” Chocolate Cake, Ramona Hopping Kechelen

“Cordially Yours” Chocolate Chip Bars, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

11 Carton Cake, Louise Dillard

Almost Clean Gluten-Free Brownies, Milissa Bell Campbell

Angel Lush with Pineapple, Vickie Burns

ANZAC Biscuits, Diana A. Van Buren Lantz

Apple Cake, Joanne Malene

Apple Cake with ‘Bienenstich’ (Almond Crust), Sherrill Koken

Apple Pie Bread Pudding, Donita Dupslaff

Blackberry Cake, Brenda Higgins

Brownie Bait, Thora Goodnight

Cake Balls, Lynn Schiel

Cake Mix Cookies, Alice Schauss

Candy Cookies, Isabelle Long

Carmel Pecan Candy, Sandra Langley Leshikar

Charlotte Arington’s Chilled Cheesecake, April Legler

Cheesecake (m), Shirley Herzer

Cheesecake for Diabetics, Ramona Hopping Kechelen

Cherry Berries in a Cloud, Charla Jordan

Cherry Fudge Brownie, Alice Schauss

Cherry Squares, Joanne Malene

Chocolate Balls, Judi Rogers

Chocolate Chip Pan Cookies, Hilda Pappas

Chocolate Cobbler, Mary Ford

Chocolate Cookies, Alice Schauss

Chocolate No-Bake Cookies, Vickie Burns

Chocolate Silk Pie, Mary Chase

Chocolate Zucchini Cake, Alice Schauss

Christmas Chow-Mein Noodle Cookies, Lynn Schiel

Congo Bars, Laura Trimberger

Date Filled Cookies, Alice Schauss

Dump Cake, Alice Schauss

Easy Coconut Cream Pie, Vickie Burns

Esther’s Brownies, Marsha Jewett

Fastnachts, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Flaky Pie Crust, Ramona Hopping Kechelen

Forget ’em Cookies, Jan Vance

Fresh Strawberry Pie, Judy Hatcher

Frozen Banana Split, Jan Vance

Fruit Cobbler, Tami McCray Olds

Fruit Cocktail Cake, Mary Chase

Gourmet Cheesecake, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Gram B’s Butterscotch Pie, Julie Black

Grandma Dolores’ Chocolate Pie, Theresa Taylor

Grandma Franz’s Fruit Torte, Melodie Schneider

Grandpa’s Carrot Cake, Valorie Strickler

Great-Grandmother’s German Molasses Cake, Mandy Riley Williams

Happy Cake, Lynn Schiel

Heath Bar Cake, Thora Goodnight

Hummingbird Cake, Thora Goodnight

Irish Pub Brownies, Martha Zimmerman

Joghurtbombe (Yogurt Dessert with Fruit), Pamela Jensen

Kaiserschmarren Sweet Austrian Pancakes, Sherrill Koken

Kase Kuchen Ohne Boden (German Cheese Cake without Crust), Karen Rink

Keeping Cake, Mary Chase

Lemon Mist Pound Cake, Louise Dillard

Lemon Pineapple Pie, Alice Schauss

Mandarin Orange Cake, Alice Schauss

Martha Washington’s Great Cake (another version), Deb Miner

Martha Washington’s Great Cake (Mount Vernon Inn Restaurant), Deb Miner

Maureen Tipton’s Family Pumpkin Pie, Maureen Tipton

Microwave German Chocolate Cake, Peggy Salitros

Millionaire Pie, Mary Chase

Mint Ice Cream with Chocolate, Karen Woodworth

Mint Sorbet, Karen Woodworth

Mixed Berry Cobbler, Jan Vance

Moab Potato Doughnuts, Shirley Herzer

Molasses Spice Cookies, Trudy Alexander

Mom’s Kolaches By Kristin Vavricek, Deb Miner

Mud Pie, Laura Trimberger

Mystery Cookies, Alice Schauss

Nanny’s Sad Cake, Dorinda Lovell

No Bake Oatmeal Cookies, Alice Schauss

North Carolina First Lady Kristin Cooper’s Chocolate Chip Cookies, Mary “Larry” Hines

Oatmeal Carmelitas, Beverly Schuele

Orange Balls, Louise Dillard

Orange Fluff, Susan Mansfield

Our Favorite Brownies (m), Lynn McCollum

Party Cookies, Faye Kassing

Pavlova, Diana A. Van Buren Lantz

Peanut Butter Balls, Laura Trimberger

Peanut Butter Bars, Mary Chase

Peanut Butter Haystacks, Judi Rogers

Peanut Butterscotch Crispies, Mary Chase

Pecan Pie: Mary’s Alabama Winner, Mary Caroline Giles Mixon

Pfeffernusse “Peppernuts”, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Potato Chip Cookies, Alice Schauss

Pound Cake, Carol Baskin Tatum

Prizewinning Chocolate Cake (m), Lynn McCollum

Pumpkin Bundt Cake, Joanne Malene

Pumpkin Dessert, Martha Zimmerman

Pumpkin Pie Crunch, Jan Vance

Red Velvet Cake (Waldorf Red Cake), Judy Hatcher

Reindeer Poop, Jan Vance

Rhubarb Cobbler, Joanne Malene

Rhubarb Custard Bars, Martha Zimmerman

Rot Wein Kuchen (Red Wine Cake), Karen Rink

Rota Zora Raspberry Dessert, Sherrill Koken

Ruth Schoepski’s Holiday Fruit Cookies, Darlene Schoepski

Sand Tarts (cut-outs), Lynn Schiel

Shirley Temple Bundt Cake, Louise Dillard

Snickerdoodles, Vickie Burns

Spiced Coffee Cake, Mary Chase

Strawberry Shortcakes, Karen Woodworth

Sugar-Free Pecan Pie, Alice Schauss

Swedish Cream, Joyce W. Holmes

Texas Sheet Cake, Alice Schauss

Thunder Cake, Marlene Lambaiso

Tres Leche, Jan Vance

Vanilla Wafer Cake, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Vanilla Wafer Cake from Irene Wolfe, Deb Miner

Waffeln (Sweet Waffles), Madonna Roberts

White Sugar Cookies (Cutout or drop), Alice Schauss

Younger Family Apple Dumplings, Donna Green Nash


“Woods Girls” Pizza Dough, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

B-B-Q Rub, Vickie Burns

Chex Candy Mix, Alice Schauss

Chive Vinegar, Lynn Schiel

Come One, Come All Bird Feed, Alice Schauss

Crème Fraîche (“Fresh Creme”), Pamela Jensen

DIY Shower Soother – Aromatherapy, Vickie Burns

Easy Cinnamon Ornaments, Alice Schauss

Facial Cleanser, Vickie Burns

Finger Jello, Alice Schauss

Hokkaido Puree, So Long Store Bought Canned Pumpkin!, Milissa Bell Campbell

Kat’s Kitchen Müsli, Katherine Hansen

Krauterbutter (Herb Butter), Pamela Jensen

Muesli Pancakes, Kathleen Evans

Noni’s Cocoa Syrup, Judy Hatcher

Old Fashioned Sweet Pickles, Janelle Johnson

Quark, Pamela Jensen

Salt Dough Ornaments, Donita Dupslaff

Spiced Peaches, Nancy Black

Summer Sausage, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Top of the Range Stuffing (plus Vegan option), Hilda Pappas

Useful Tips: Awesome Weed Killer, Deb Miner

Vanilla Extract, Karen Rink

Vanilla Sugar, Pamela Jensen

Yummy Granola, Cindi Maher