Washington Crossing the Delaware

Photo Source: Google

Washington Crossing the Delaware is the iconic painting of America during the Revolutionary War. There were actually three paintings in the original series, created by the German-American artist Emanuel Leutze.

About the Painter and the Original Versions of the Painting

Emanuel Leutze grew up in America, but returned to Germany as an adult, where he lived in a town near Düsseldorf. He conceived the idea for Washington Crossing the Delaware during the European Revolutions of 1848, hoping to encourage liberal reformist movements through the example of the American Revolution (Wikipedia).  

As he had no first-hand American references, he had to use American tourists as models and depicted the landscape based on the scenery along the Rhine where he lived (ibid). He finished the first version of the painting in 1850, utilizing the artistic help of Düsseldorf Art Academy painters like Worthington Whittredge and Andreas Achenbach (ibid). Unfortunately, the first version of the painting was damaged by fire. Many years later the painting was restored and was acquired by the Kunsthalle Bremen, where it remained until destroyed by an Allied forces bombing in the Second World War. 

The second painting was a full-sized copy of the original. Leutze began the painting in 1850 and placed it on exhibition in New York in 1851. More than 50,000 people viewed the painting. According to Wikipedia, it was bought by Marshall O. Roberts for $10,000 (roughly $350,000 today). After changing hands several times, the painting was donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City by John Stewart Kennedy in 1897 (ibid).

The frame shown in the above photo is based on the original designed by Leutze. The carved eagle-topped crest alone is 14 feet wide!

A third and smaller version of the original painting hung in the White House for many years. In 2014 it was acquired by Mary Burrichter and Bob Kierlin, founders of the Minnesota Marine Art Museum in Winona, Minnesota.  The painting is currently on display in the American collection there (ibid).

What the Painting Depicts

The painting Washington Crossing the Delaware depicts Washington’s surprise attack on a Hessian garrison of roughly 1,400 soldiers located around Trenton, New Jersey on Christmas night in 1776 (www.mountvernon.org).

Hoping to raise sagging morale with a quick victory, Washington planned to attack from three different crossings. One force of 1,200 Philadelphia militia and 600 Continentals under Col. Cadwalader was to cross near Burlington, NJ. General James Ewings’s forces of 800 Philadelphians were to cross at Trenton and take up defense positions. Washington planned to cross with 2,400 soldiers roughly 10 miles north of Trenton (ibid).

But nature turned against their plans. A major snow and sleet storm developed and both of the first two attacks were  thwarted by the ice-choked river. Washington succeeded  in crossing, but was delayed by three hours. The men in his expedition were tired, hungry and poorly dressed for the storm. Washington contemplated turning back but later wrote, “…as I was certain there was no making a retreat without being discovered and harassed on repassing the River, I determined to push on at all Events”(ibid).

Although the painting of Washington Crossing the Delaware depicts him in a rowboat, the actual vessels they used were sturdy, shallow draft cargo boats of 40 to 60 feet in length. A great amount of artillery was transported with the soldiers, including 18 cannons, horses and ammunition (ibid). Though the painting suggests that the crossing was at a wide point in the river, the actual crossing point was less than 300 yards wide. The boats were probably fixed to a wire strung across the river (ibid).

Some Wrong Details Added for Impact

Art critic Isaac Kaplan points out in his article ‘This Iconic American History Painting Gets the Facts Wrong’ (www.Artsy.net) that if Washington had truly been perched on the boat’s edge as depicted, he would have fallen into the water and drowned. Because the boats were shallow-bottomed, it is likely though that all passengers would have been standing, because the bottoms would have been cold and covered in water. 

The lighting in the painting suggests that the attack is happening at daybreak. Although the actual attack was in the night, we can perhaps interpret this as an intended metaphor for the dawn of new hope in the revolutionary movement. 

The flag that Washington is holding in his hand is not the one used in 1776, when the crossing took place. It was adopted about a year later (ibid). Also the icebergs are probably not a realistic rendering of the ice sheets that form on the Delaware in the winter. Again, this might be an intended metaphor for the hardships of the war.  

Another clearly intended metaphor is the representation of the people in the boat. They represent a cross-section of the American colonies, including a man in a Scottish bonnet and a man of African decent facing backward next to each other in the front, western riflemen placed at the bow and stern, two farmers near the back, and an androgynous rower in a red shirt, possibly a woman in a man’s clothing. There is also a man at the back of the boat in Native American clothing. (Wikipedia).

What the Crossing Might Have Actually Looked Like

No-one would ever want to deny Washington Crossing the Delaware is iconic American art. But recently, the historical painter Mort Künstler was commissioned by an American Congressman to make a painting based on the historical truths of the crossing. After much research on location and using the guidance of local historians, Mr. Künstler has provided us with a different depiction of the event. If you would like to look at his rendering, here is a link to an article in a New York  Times blog: https://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/23/a-famous-painting-meets-its-more-factual-match/.

Sources: www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington_Crossing_the_Delaware



Germany’s Forests and America

Today Germans Are Tree Huggers, But Weren’t Always

Germany has always been associated with woods and forests. Most people have heard of the ‘Black Forest’, and the stories of Hansel and Gretel and Little Red Riding Hood are traditional  German fairy tales most of us know from childhood.

Certainly the German forests have often been feared. This phenomenon dates back to Roman times, where the Roman historian Tacitus described the forests in Germany as, ‘terrible, filled with ugly swamps’, which led him to conclude that the Germanic tribes were similarly primitive (1). Throughout the Middle Ages, Germany’s inhospitable woodlands were believed to be full of robbers, ghosts and witches.

But the Romantic Movement in the 19th Century led to a transformation of the German forest’s image (2). Forests became a dominant theme in poetry, painting and music — including the fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm. The forest became a political symbol for German unity, reinforcing the identity of Germans as a robust and nature-loving folk. After the second world war, the forest continued to gain in popularity as a place of respite from hectic city life. Today German forests are a central part of the country’s identity and culture. They are the defining symbol of Germany’s  sustainable future.

Source: shopping.de

Forests in Germany: Facts

Roughly one-third of Germany is covered with forests. This represents about 11.4 million hectares (3). The composition of German forests is 60% coniferous and 40% deciduous. The most common trees are spruce (28%), pine (23%), beech (15%) and oak (10%). Of these, beech and oak are the indigenous species, and would account for over 90% of all trees in German forests if conifers weren’t present. The reason that conifers are so prevalent in German forests today has to do with their relatively quick growing cycles and suitability for a quick sales cycle. 

A conifer is mature and ready to be felled in just thirty years. The non-conifer deciduous species require much longer to mature before they can be felled and sold. 

The reason that conifers grow quickly has to do with their relatively flat root system, which allows them to absorb water quickly to accelerate growth. Deciduous trees have much deeper root systems that absorb water more slowly. The advantages that deciduous trees have versus conifers are that they a) are more resistant to falling down in wind storms, and b) are more resistant to drought. With their shallow root systems, conifers are easily knocked over in a major wind storm and are prone to dryness in periods of drought. 

Source: Google, unknown.jpeg

Climate Change and German Forests

Germany has experienced sustained dryness in recent years that has severely weakened its forests. The years 2018-2019 were particularly bad. And due to their root system, as described above, the conifers suffered disproportionately. 

According to German national television, roughly 400,000 hectares of forest were destroyed by the end of 2020, mainly conifers (4). To put this in perspective, the size of the area lost is roughly the size of Rhode Island, or if you prefer football, the size of 247,000 football fields!

Because the trees were weakened by drought, they produced less resin than needed to ward off insect predators. The bark beetle (Borkenkäfer), a widely disseminated predator beetle in the USA, had the perfect conditions to invade and cause a plague in the weakened German conifers.

How do the beetles kill the trees? First they lay their eggs in the bark. If the tree is too weak to produce enough protective resin, the eggs destroy the tree’s bast layer, which is the innermost vascular layer of the bark that transports sugar produced by photosynthesis to other parts of the tree. This interrupts the nutritional flow of the tree, slowly starving it. The second contribution bark beetles make toward destroying the tree relates to the fungi they carry when they settle in the bark to lay their eggs. Theses fungi accelerate the death process in the already weakened trees. 

Trees breathe CO2 and release oxygen into the atmosphere. When a trees die, it not only reduces  forestry revenue, but more importantly also reduces the possibility to absorb atmospheric CO2, a critical component of global warming. 

Source: Google, unknown-1 jpeg

America is Part of the Solution for German Forests

Global warming means that Germany’s forests must be made up of tree species that are better at  resisting drought to survive and remain sustainable. 

North America offers several tree species that are being introduced in Germany for their greater resistance to drought. Some of the prominent species include: Douglas Fir (NW America), Red Oak (East Coast USA), Eastern White Pine (East Coast USA) and Grand Firs (NW USA) (5).

 In many parts of Germany, the government is subsidizing the planting of these hardy American species in the hope that the forests can be made better sustainable. 


At the moment industrial wood is in short supply in both Germany and the United States. CNN reports that wood prices in the USA have risen by 500% since early April 2020, due to a boom in the housing market (6). The availability of wood for construction in Germany is also said to be in short supply. 

In the relatively near future, the international wood crisis should ameliorate itself. However, a positive longterm outlook for German forests will depend on planting and maintaining sustainable forests worldwide as part of the fight to reduce CO2 levels around the planet. Here every nation in the world has an equal interest.  


  1. DW.com, ‘The Origins of the Germans’ Special Relation to the Forest’
  2. Ibid
  3. Wirtschaft-in-Deutschland.de
  4. ZDF, German national TV station
  5. waldwissen.net
  6. CNN.com, ‘Why Lumber Prices are so High…’ 

And Here is an index of the great recipes that the Palatinate Cookbook offers:

Appetizers & Beverages

Arugula Crush, Sherrill Koken

Ava’s Happy Sunshine at the Party Dip, Ava Madison

Bacon Wrapped Chestnuts (Maronen im Speckmantel), Pamela Jensen

Bacon-Wrapped Brussel Sprouts with Creamy Lemon Dip, Louise Dillard

Baked Onion Spread, Mary Chase

Baked Pimiento Cheese, Jan Vance

Bonn Olympic Hot Artichoke Dip, Susan Cothran

Cathy’s Corn Dip, Louise Dillard

Country Chicken Bal,l Janelle Preman

Cranberry Gluhwein, Pamela Jensen

Easy Cream Cheese, Karen Rink

Elderberry Liqueur, Karen Rink

Family Wassail, Karen Woodworth

Fireside Hot Chocolate, Donita Dupslaff

Fruited Mint Tea, Mary Chase

Gluhwein (“Mulled Wine”) (several variations), Pamela Jensen

Hot Artichoke Dip, Laura Trimberger

Hot Cheese and Crab Fondue, Alice Schauss

Hot Chocolate Mix, Vickie Burns

Julie’s Famous Chicken Wings, Julie Black

Kinderpunsch (Children’s Punch – nonalcoholic), Pamela Jensen

Meatballs in a Crockpot, Sharon Garrison

Mint and Citrus Tea, Karen Woodworth

Old English Cheese Ball, Lynn Schiel

Open Tostada Party Plate, Nancy Black

Pâté My Way, Valorie Strickler

Pesto Hots, Judy Hatcher

Quark Dip, Pamela Jensen

Rudesheimer Coffee (German Coffee with Brandy) , Susan Cothran

Sausage Ball,s Anita Allex

Shirley’s Texas Caviar, Shirley Herzer

Shrimp Butter, Joanne Malene

Sparkling Punch, Mary Chase, Vickie Burns

Sun-Dried Tomato Spread, Valorie Strickler

Texas Caviar, Louise Dillard

Texas Christmas Pickles, Louise Dillard

White Cheddar Cheese Spread, Mary Chase

Wine Bar Nut Mix, Sherrill Koken

Zucchini Appetizer, Joanne Malene

Bread and Muffins

7-Up Biscuits, Louise Dillard

Apfelpfannkuchen (Apple Pancakes for Sunday Brunch) (p), Carol Hoernle

Apple Pumpkin Muffins, Beverly Schuele

Baked Oatmeal, Thora Goodnight

Banana Bread, Alice Schauss

Banana Luncheon Bread, Hilda Pappas

Blueberry Muffins, Donita Dupslaff

Blueberry Muffins to Die For, Marsha Young

Bobsha’s Berliner Pfannekuchen (Donuts), Joyce W. Holmes

Ginger-Blueberry Scones, Karen Woodworth

Grandma Abbie Bushong’s Homemade White Bread, April Legler

Grandma’s Irish Soda Bread, Sharon Garrison

Honey Wheat Germ Bread, Thora Goodnight

Martin’s Zucchini Bread, Donita Dupslaff

Mom’s Cinnamon Sweet Rolls  (m), Susan M Fowler

Monkey Bread, Lynn Schiel

No Knead, Dutch Oven Bread, Karen Rink

Rhubarb Bread, Martha Zimmerman

Sausage Brunch Braid, Judi Rogers

Scottish Gingerbread Squares (Vegan), Hilda Pappas

Spread for Garlic Bread Ramona, Hopping Kechelen

Strawberry Quick Bread, Karen Woodworth

Sunday Morning Banana Bread, Karen Woodworth

Super Moist Butter Nut Muffins, Carol Moldenhauer

Zwieback, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Soups, Stews, Salads and Sauces

24-Hour Salad, Nancy Black

American (Peasants) Oyster Stew, Deborah Halver-Hanson

Aunt Sandy’s Chicken Noodle Soup, Joanne Malene

Blueberry Salad, Judi Rogers

Broccoli Salad, Sharon Garrison

Broccoli, Bacon, Lettuce & Tomato Salad, Judy Hatcher

Bunter Chinakohlsalat (Colorful Napa Cabbage Salad), Pamela Jensen

Caramel Apple Salad, Laura Trimberger

Cauliflower Salad, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Cheri’s Coleslaw, Cheri Eisen

Chili, Lynn Schiel

Chili with Rice, Lori Elling

Co-Cola Salad (can also be a dessert), Ellen Ford Cook

Coal Miner’s Stew, Alice Schauss

Cooked Cold Rice Salad, Joyce W. Holmes

Copycat Zuppa Toscana Soup, Louise Dillard

Cranberry Orange Salad, Karen Woodworth

Cranberry Salad, Hilda Pappas

Cranberry Salad (Relish), Nancy Black

Cream of Asparagus Soup, Sherrill Koken

Curried Lentil Soup, Mary Chase

Deftige Kohlrabi-Kartoffel Suppe (Hearty Kohlrabi-Potato Soup), Pamela Jensen

Erbsensuppe (Pea Soup,) Karen Rink

Feuriger Gulasch (Fire Goulash), Pamela Jensen

Fresh Spinach Salad, Ramona Hopping Kechelen

Fresh Tomato Salsa, Linda Ingalls

Frozen Cranberry – Pineapple Salad, Mary “Larry” Hines

Fruit Salad with Pineapple Dressing, Jan Vance

German Potato Salad, Pamela Jensen

Goulash a la Austria, Pamela Jensen

Grandmother’s Potato Soup, Cynthia “Ricki” McKinney

Grape Salad, Linda Ingalls

Gulaschsuppe, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

Halloween Chili, Laura Trimberger

Ham & Bean Soup, Donita Dupslaff

Kartoffelsuppe (Potato Soup), Karen Rink

Kohlsalat mit Rosa Pfeffer (Cabbage salad with pink pepper) (vegan), Pamela Jensen

Lamb Stew, Monica Mills

Lemon Tutti Fruiti Salad, Mary Chase

Light Tomato Sauce, Donna Weaver

Lime Salad, Mary Chase

Louise’s Cream of Chicken Noodle Soup, Louise Dillard

Mount Vernon Inn Restaurant Peanut Soup, Mary  B. White

Orange Delight Salad, Faye Kassing

Ribbons of Romaine with Pinon Dressing, Donna Weaver

Rosemary Chicken Salad, Judi Rogers

Rustic Potato Soup, Trudy Alexander

Senate Bean Soup (From the U.S. Senate Restaurant since 1903), Judy Hatcher

Simple Carrot Salad, Ramona Hopping Kechelen

Spiced Butternut Squash Soup, Mary Chase

Spinach Strawberry Salad, Laura Trimberger

Stir Fry Sauce, Lynn Schiel

Strawberry Jell-O Salad, Sharon Garrison

Taco Soup, Lynn Schiel

Three Bean and Beef Chili, Louise Dillard

Trucker Beans for Picnic or Barbecue, Joanne Malene

Turkey Salad, Mary Chase

Venison Stew, Sherrill Koken

Watermelon Salad, Mary Chase

Main Courses: Beef, Pork and Lamb

Beef Roulade Spätzle (Noodles for the beef gravy),Carol Hoernle

Beef Rouladen, Carol Hoernle

Bierocks Sandra, Langley Leshikar

Boeuf Bourguignon, Karen Rink

Boiled Beef with Herb Mayonnaise, Sherrill Koken

Boston Market Style Meatloaf, Louise Dillard

Brisket, Faye Kassing

Classic Beef Tenderloin, Mary Chase

Classic Cola-Glazed Ham, Vickie Burns

Creamy Ham Casserole, Donita Dupslaff

Easy Way Sauerbraten, Valorie Strickler

Good Old Fashioned Meatloaf, Deb Miner

Halupki (Stuffed Cabbage Rolls), Lynn Schiel

Hawaiian Ham Sliders, Louise Dillard

Italian Sausage Casserole, Joanne Malene

Laura’s Carolina Style Meatloaf, Laura Laye-Duncan

Mary Stannard’s Corned Beef and Cabbage, Deb Miner

Mom’s Dutch Meatloaf, Sharon Garrison

Mozzarella Meatloaf, Laura Trimberger

Oriental Steak, Korean Style Nancy Black

Pepperoni Pizza (m), Karen Woodworth

Pork Chop Piccata with Spaghetti, Louise Dillard

Pork Tenderloin with Prunes, Sherrill Koken

Pumpkin Macaroni and Cheese with Ground Meat, Sherrill Koken

Rakott Kaposzta or Layered Sauerkraut Transylvania Style, Lois Borsay

Roast Beef with Ginger Ale, Alice Schauss

Sauerbraten made with Beef (needs 4-5 days marination before cooking!), Sherrill Koken

Sausage Lasagna, Anita Allex

Southern Barbecue Porkchops, Vickie Burns

Stew Meat, Alice Schauss

Taco Rice, Susan M Fowler

Teriyaki Hawaiian, Faye Kassing

Main Courses: Seafood, Poultry, Pasta and Casseroles

Alabama-Style Shrimp Bake, Alice Schauss

Artichoke-stuffed Chicken Breasts, Joanne Malene

Aunt Jenny’s Greek Dressing, Hilda Pappas

Barbecue Chicken, Donita Dupslaff

Butter Chicken, Diana A. Van Buren Lantz

Chicken Almond Casserole, Mary Chase

Chicken and Broccoli Casserole, Karen Woodworth

Chicken Breasts with Brandy, Leona Ware

Chicken Curry Casserole, Susan Cothran

Chicken Enchiladas, Joanne Malene

Chicken Pot Pie My Way, Louise Dillard

Chicken Tetrazzini, Mary “Larry” Hines

Coq au Vin, Karen Rink

Coqulles Saint Jacques, Thora Goodnight

Crockpot Lemon Chicken, Joanne Malene

Easy Homemade Pizza, Amanda Wendt

Enchilada Casserole, Linda Ingalls

Fantastic (and Simple!) Baked Salmon, Valorie Strickler

Green Chicken Enchiladas, Jan Vance

Hash Brown Casserole II, Beverly Schuele

Hash Brown Quiche, Mary Chase

Herring in Cream Sauce (Rhineland recipe), Sherrill Koken

Hot Chicken Salad, Jan Vance Jan Vance

Hot Chicken Salad, Sheri Dagg Sheri  Dagg

Hot Chicken Sandwich, Alice Schauss

Hunter Style Chicken, Lynn Schiel

Käse Spätzle mit Zwiebeln (Spätzle Noodles with Cheese and Onions), Karen Rink

Mussels with Tomatoes and Cannelloni Beans, Joanne Malene

Pete’s Smoked Mac & Cheese, Milissa Bell Campbell

Quiche Lorraine, Karen Rink

Salmon with Sautéed Leeks, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

Sausage and Sauerkraut Bake, Mary Chase

Seafood Lasagna, Thora Goodnight

Shrimp Gumbo, Tiffin Fox

Shrimp Scampi, Alice Schauss

Slow Cooker, Foil Baked Tilapia, Lynn Schiel

Slow-Cooker Bolognese, Louise Dillard

Snow on the Mountain, Diana A. Van Buren Lantz

Spicy Shrimp Casserole, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

Spinach Lasagna, Laura Trimberger

Sunday Brunch Casserole, Jan Vance

Sunny’s Tuna Noodle Casserole, Louise Dillard

Taco Casserole, Lynn Schiel

Three Meat, Mushroom and Four Cheese Lasagna (m), Milissa Bell Campbell

Vegetables and Vegetarian Dishes

3 Versions of Dumplings, Sherrill Koken

Arkansas Green Beans, Mary Ford

Baked Cinnamon Carrots, Mary “Larry” Hines

Baked Squash (old and new methods), Deborah Halver-Hanson

Cola Sauerkraut, Mary Chase

Company Style Potatoes, Lynn Schiel

Corn Pudding, Vickie Burns

Corn Soufflé, Mary Chase

Cowboy Caviar, Jan Vance

Eggplant with Crispy Coating, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

Fresh Garden Medley, Lynette (Lynn) Theisen

Fried Cabbage, Louise Dillard

German Sweet and Sour Red Cabbage, Pamela Jensen

Goldenrod Green Beans, Nancy Black

Green Beans, Oven Roasted with Pecans, Sharon DeMuth

Grumbeerkiechle mit Apfelmus (Potato Pancakes), Karen Rink

Hash Brown Potato Casserole, Jan Vance

Impossible Zucchini-Tomato Pie, Carol Moldenhauer

Jiffy Corn Pudding, Thora Goodnight

Marinated Cucumbers, Nancy Black

Marinated Vegetables (Vegan), Hilda Pappa

Microwave Baked Sweet Potato, Donita Dupslaff

Mom’s Special Green Beans, Sharon DeMuth

Onion Casserole, Janelle Johnson

Pat’s Sweet Potatoes, Hilda Pappas

Pesto Artichoke Pizza (m), Karen Woodworth

Potato Rösti from the Oven, Sherrill Koken

Red Cabbage, Carol Hoernle

Rosemary Potatoes, Valorie Strickler

Rotkohl (Red Cabbage), Pamela Jensen

Spanish Rice in Pat Chase’s Style, Mary Chase

Steamed Brussel Sprouts and Carrots with Honey Mustard Sauce, Louise Dillard

Vegan Quinoa & Black Bean Salad, Hilda Pappas

Veggies in Wine Sauce (plus Vegan option), Hilda Pappas

Desserts, Pies, Cakes and Cookies

“Best of the Wurst” Chocolate Cake, Ramona Hopping Kechelen

“Cordially Yours” Chocolate Chip Bars, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

11 Carton Cake, Louise Dillard

Almost Clean Gluten-Free Brownies, Milissa Bell Campbell

Angel Lush with Pineapple, Vickie Burns

ANZAC Biscuits, Diana A. Van Buren Lantz

Apple Cake, Joanne Malene

Apple Cake with ‘Bienenstich’ (Almond Crust), Sherrill Koken

Apple Pie Bread Pudding, Donita Dupslaff

Blackberry Cake, Brenda Higgins

Brownie Bait, Thora Goodnight

Cake Balls, Lynn Schiel

Cake Mix Cookies, Alice Schauss

Candy Cookies, Isabelle Long

Carmel Pecan Candy, Sandra Langley Leshikar

Charlotte Arington’s Chilled Cheesecake, April Legler

Cheesecake (m), Shirley Herzer

Cheesecake for Diabetics, Ramona Hopping Kechelen

Cherry Berries in a Cloud, Charla Jordan

Cherry Fudge Brownie, Alice Schauss

Cherry Squares, Joanne Malene

Chocolate Balls, Judi Rogers

Chocolate Chip Pan Cookies, Hilda Pappas

Chocolate Cobbler, Mary Ford

Chocolate Cookies, Alice Schauss

Chocolate No-Bake Cookies, Vickie Burns

Chocolate Silk Pie, Mary Chase

Chocolate Zucchini Cake, Alice Schauss

Christmas Chow-Mein Noodle Cookies, Lynn Schiel

Congo Bars, Laura Trimberger

Date Filled Cookies, Alice Schauss

Dump Cake, Alice Schauss

Easy Coconut Cream Pie, Vickie Burns

Esther’s Brownies, Marsha Jewett

Fastnachts, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Flaky Pie Crust, Ramona Hopping Kechelen

Forget ’em Cookies, Jan Vance

Fresh Strawberry Pie, Judy Hatcher

Frozen Banana Split, Jan Vance

Fruit Cobbler, Tami McCray Olds

Fruit Cocktail Cake, Mary Chase

Gourmet Cheesecake, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Gram B’s Butterscotch Pie, Julie Black

Grandma Dolores’ Chocolate Pie, Theresa Taylor

Grandma Franz’s Fruit Torte, Melodie Schneider

Grandpa’s Carrot Cake, Valorie Strickler

Great-Grandmother’s German Molasses Cake, Mandy Riley Williams

Happy Cake, Lynn Schiel

Heath Bar Cake, Thora Goodnight

Hummingbird Cake, Thora Goodnight

Irish Pub Brownies, Martha Zimmerman

Joghurtbombe (Yogurt Dessert with Fruit), Pamela Jensen

Kaiserschmarren Sweet Austrian Pancakes, Sherrill Koken

Kase Kuchen Ohne Boden (German Cheese Cake without Crust), Karen Rink

Keeping Cake, Mary Chase

Lemon Mist Pound Cake, Louise Dillard

Lemon Pineapple Pie, Alice Schauss

Mandarin Orange Cake, Alice Schauss

Martha Washington’s Great Cake (another version), Deb Miner

Martha Washington’s Great Cake (Mount Vernon Inn Restaurant), Deb Miner

Maureen Tipton’s Family Pumpkin Pie, Maureen Tipton

Microwave German Chocolate Cake, Peggy Salitros

Millionaire Pie, Mary Chase

Mint Ice Cream with Chocolate, Karen Woodworth

Mint Sorbet, Karen Woodworth

Mixed Berry Cobbler, Jan Vance

Moab Potato Doughnuts, Shirley Herzer

Molasses Spice Cookies, Trudy Alexander

Mom’s Kolaches By Kristin Vavricek, Deb Miner

Mud Pie, Laura Trimberger

Mystery Cookies, Alice Schauss

Nanny’s Sad Cake, Dorinda Lovell

No Bake Oatmeal Cookies, Alice Schauss

North Carolina First Lady Kristin Cooper’s Chocolate Chip Cookies, Mary “Larry” Hines

Oatmeal Carmelitas, Beverly Schuele

Orange Balls, Louise Dillard

Orange Fluff, Susan Mansfield

Our Favorite Brownies (m), Lynn McCollum

Party Cookies, Faye Kassing

Pavlova, Diana A. Van Buren Lantz

Peanut Butter Balls, Laura Trimberger

Peanut Butter Bars, Mary Chase

Peanut Butter Haystacks, Judi Rogers

Peanut Butterscotch Crispies, Mary Chase

Pecan Pie: Mary’s Alabama Winner, Mary Caroline Giles Mixon

Pfeffernusse “Peppernuts”, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Potato Chip Cookies, Alice Schauss

Pound Cake, Carol Baskin Tatum

Prizewinning Chocolate Cake (m), Lynn McCollum

Pumpkin Bundt Cake, Joanne Malene

Pumpkin Dessert, Martha Zimmerman

Pumpkin Pie Crunch, Jan Vance

Red Velvet Cake (Waldorf Red Cake), Judy Hatcher

Reindeer Poop, Jan Vance

Rhubarb Cobbler, Joanne Malene

Rhubarb Custard Bars, Martha Zimmerman

Rot Wein Kuchen (Red Wine Cake), Karen Rink

Rota Zora Raspberry Dessert, Sherrill Koken

Ruth Schoepski’s Holiday Fruit Cookies, Darlene Schoepski

Sand Tarts (cut-outs), Lynn Schiel

Shirley Temple Bundt Cake, Louise Dillard

Snickerdoodles, Vickie Burns

Spiced Coffee Cake, Mary Chase

Strawberry Shortcakes, Karen Woodworth

Sugar-Free Pecan Pie, Alice Schauss

Swedish Cream, Joyce W. Holmes

Texas Sheet Cake, Alice Schauss

Thunder Cake, Marlene Lambaiso

Tres Leche, Jan Vance

Vanilla Wafer Cake, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Vanilla Wafer Cake from Irene Wolfe, Deb Miner

Waffeln (Sweet Waffles), Madonna Roberts

White Sugar Cookies (Cutout or drop), Alice Schauss

Younger Family Apple Dumplings, Donna Green Nash


“Woods Girls” Pizza Dough, Sara Woods (Sara Gonzales)

B-B-Q Rub, Vickie Burns

Chex Candy Mix, Alice Schauss

Chive Vinegar, Lynn Schiel

Come One, Come All Bird Feed, Alice Schauss

Crème Fraîche (“Fresh Creme”), Pamela Jensen

DIY Shower Soother – Aromatherapy, Vickie Burns

Easy Cinnamon Ornaments, Alice Schauss

Facial Cleanser, Vickie Burns

Finger Jello, Alice Schauss

Hokkaido Puree, So Long Store Bought Canned Pumpkin!, Milissa Bell Campbell

Kat’s Kitchen Müsli, Katherine Hansen

Krauterbutter (Herb Butter), Pamela Jensen

Muesli Pancakes, Kathleen Evans

Noni’s Cocoa Syrup, Judy Hatcher

Old Fashioned Sweet Pickles, Janelle Johnson

Quark, Pamela Jensen

Salt Dough Ornaments, Donita Dupslaff

Spiced Peaches, Nancy Black

Summer Sausage, Amy Marie Yorgen Barron

Top of the Range Stuffing (plus Vegan option), Hilda Pappas

Useful Tips: Awesome Weed Killer, Deb Miner

Vanilla Extract, Karen Rink

Vanilla Sugar, Pamela Jensen

Yummy Granola, Cindi Maher

The Palatinate DAR is offering an exciting new cookbook with almost three-hundred recipes from our members and Associates. Here is the order form that you can download and print (please note that shipping prices could alter slightly):


“Palatinate Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution” COOKBOOK

“373 favorite recipes from our kitchens to yours”

Nearly 300 pages of yummy recipes in a spiral-bound, soft-sided, full sized cookbook (8-1/2 x 11 inches). Proceeds will be used to support our Chapter’s outreach programs supporting military, veterans, educational, historical and patriotic projects.

This cookbook could be a great gift idea for the cooks in your life, a new bride or NSDAR sister. Please send in your order NOW!

Ordered by: __________________________________ Email: _____________________________________________page1image41844288

Palatinate Chapter NSDAR Germany

Date ordered:____________

Quantity ordered: _______ at $25.00 a copy:
Add $4.00 shipping & handling for first copy
Add $1.50 for each additional book sent to the same address

Number copies: ____, + $4.00 for the first copy, and $________ for additional copies

Total amount of order: $____________

(Please indicate if you would like a postal tracking number)


Sample recipe:


Please mail check (made out to Palatinate Chapter NSDAR ) and order form to:

Pamela Jensen
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Sauerkraut, the Germans and Early America

Sauerkraut and Scurvy, the Plague of the Seas

Sauerkraut, or ‘sour cabbage’ in English, was possibly one of the most important sources of nourishment in early American days. Without the estimated 8,000 pounds of sauerkraut brought to the New World on ships, we may not have ever won the battle against the scourge of the seas, scurvy, in coming to America (modern farmer.com).

Scurvy killed an estimated 2,000,000 people on sailing ships between 1500-1800 (ibid). Scurvy is caused by an extreme vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, helps the body to produce vital proteins and acts as an antioxidant.

James Cook was one of the first seamen to experiment with perishable foods on his ship the HM Bark Endeavor in 1768. He took thinly sliced cabbage that was allowed to ferment in its own juices to replace fresh fruits as a source of vitamin C. By then it was widely known that fermented cabbage was a source of excellent nutrition. Even in ancient times, the Chinese fed the workers who built the Great Wall with sauerkraut, and they stayed remarkably healthy.

The earliest sauerkraut recipes found in Eastern Europe are thought to have come by way of Genghis Khan and his marauding troops. 

The Germans and Sauerkraut

No-one knows exactly when sauerkraut made its debut in Germany, but it is assumed that it was sometime in the 1600’s (kitchen project.com). It was brought to Germany by the Mongols and its main ingredient, cabbage, proved to grow well in the cool northern climate. Other references suggest that the Romans originally brought sauerkraut to Germany. Hildegard von Bingen, the famous 12th Century nun and herbalist, used sauerkraut in her folk recipes (ibid). During World War I, the  German soldiers consumed sauerkraut as a regular staple. Hence the label ‘Krauts’ emerged as a nickname for Germans.

Sauerkraut Comes to the American Colonies

Sauerkraut is first mentioned in American English in 1776. The dish was associated for a long time with German communities, specifically the Pennsylvania Dutch (what’scookingamerica.com). Pennsylvania Dutch cooking is indigenous to the areas of southeastern Pennsylvania settled by the Amish and Mennonites. 

William Penn had brought these groups to America in a ‘holy experiment of religious tolerance’. The first sizable population arrived in the 1730’s, settling in the Lancaster, PA area. A typical recipe for homemade sauerkraut from this era included cabbage layered with salt and kept in an air-tight container for several months in a cool and dark cellar. If you would like to see a description of an original 18th century American recipe for sauerkraut, here is a 9 minute presentation on You Tube that you might enjoy: 

Health Benefits of Sauerkraut

Sauerkraut is even more nutritious than cabbage, due to the high concentration of vitamin C created through fermentation. It is low in calories and high in calcium and magnesium. It is a good source of dietary fiber, folate, iron, potassium, copper and manganese (Wikipedia).

Sauerkraut is also a time-honored folk remedy for canker sores, and some sources claim that it is effective in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells in test tube studies (ibid). 

The Bottom Line

Sauerkraut is admittedly one of those dishes that people either love or hate. But what would a hotdog be without sauerkraut? Or a pork roast? For German families, and for many families with a German heritage, this is not conceivable! And today there are so many recipes that utilize sauerkraut in new and innovative ways. Here are a couple of links to get you started on rediscovering this healthy food:



Spring is Here: Time to Get Your Pollinator Garden Buzzing!

Gardening is always a joy after the long and cold winter, and this year we are all especially grateful to bring our gardens back into bloom so we can take our minds off of the pandemic.

Bees and insects are critical to our food chain. Without them we would have no fruit and vegetables to eat!

Insect extinction (we call it “Bienensterben” in Germany) continues to be an international problem, but there are ways we can help reduce the losses. One way to help is to turn at least part of your outdoor space into a “pollinator” garden.

What is a Good Pollinator Garden?

According to Gardenista.com, a good pollinator garden uses no pesticides or insecticides. It must offer food, water and shelter for insects. Critically important is the choice of plants. Only plants that grow natively in your area should be used to help and encourage native pollinator insects. For this, it is important to research and seek advise from a garden expert or reputable shop.

Perfection is Definitely not Required!

In fact a good pollinator garden allows lawn weeds to flower by mowing less frequently. Even the weeds in your flower beds are useful to insects. So instead of worrying about having a perfect garden, enjoy watching the bees and butterflies do their work!

Plan in Advance

A good pollinator garden mixes up all kinds of flower shapes and colors to attract bees and butterflies to their nectar. An assortment of flowers that bloom from the beginning of spring through the fall provide a continuous source of pollination for insects. Getting this right means making a plan or a diagram, preparing the soil correctly and letting your imagination run to get a spectacular design. This is equally true whether your pollinator plot is a whole backyard or a balcony. In pollinator gardening, small is beautiful, too!

Give Insects a Refuge

According to entomologistlounge.com, you can use scraps of organic material from your own garden to make a refuge or habitat for insects. It is important to use untreated wood and recycled materials from your organic compost. A simple stack of these materials in an undisturbed corner is already a good and simple solution for getting started. For those who are more ambitious, there is also an option of making your own ‘insect hotel’, which can be a fun and educational project with children.

There are many commercially prepared insect hotels on the market, but entomologist.com warns that some are unsuitable. Warning signs for a ‘poor’ insect hotel include the use of pine cones, glued snail shells, wood shavings and clear plastic tubes. Here are two examples of a ‘bad’ and ‘good’ insects hotel they provide:

The website entomologistlounge.com claims that poorly designed insect hotels actually lead to parasite problems. When the parasites hatch they eat the stored bee pollen and the bee larvae die. A second possible problem is that the poorly designed insect hotels can become mouldy when moisture gets trapped in plastic materials and condenses, leading to increased disease rates.

Thus the best insect hotel is one that is geared to the bees in your area, which means you need to do some research before making your own. The holes drilled should be smooth with no splinters, and the shelter should have a sturdy roof for rain protection. For the best results it should be placed in a sunny position. Importantly, the hotel should be cleaned at the end of the summer to prevent mold and mites. The Entomologist Lounge recommends that your insect hotel be replaced about every two years. Here are some examples of ‘good’ homemade hotels provided by the organization: 

 ‘Auf geht’s’ (let’s go!) and get buzzing with a pollinator garden!

Women’s History Month: Profile Özlem Türeci of BioNTech

March is National Women’s History Month, so this month we would like to profile a remarkable German woman who is at the forefront of the international efforts to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Her name is Özlem Türeci, and she is the co-founder, with her husband Dr. Ugur Sahin, of BioNTech. BioNTech was the first company to develop a vaccine, based on a new technology using messenger RNA, to receive approval by all the international authorities for immunization against the COVID-19 virus.

From Wikipedia

Where the Vaccine Started

As many may already know, the COVID-19 vaccine was developed in less that a year, and claimed to have been developed according to the “highest scientific and ethical standards” (BioNTech website). The company had been working on messenger RNA treatments for cancer patients and saw its potential in use during pandemics. When Dr. Sahin read an article in the medical journal, ‘The Lancet’, that indicated a coronavirus was spreading rapidly throughout China, he was convinced that it would become a full-blown pandemic (source: New York Times). BioNTech began working immediately in January, 2020 on the project to develop a vaccine and called it Project Lightspeed. BioNTech had been working on a flu vaccine with Pfizer since 2018, and in March of 2020, they agreed to cooperate on developing the COVID-19 vaccine together. 

Özlem Türeci: Chief Medical Officer (CMO) of BioNTech 

According to the BioNTech website, Dr. Türecki came to BioNTech in 2008 as a member of the clinical advisory board before she became the CMO in 2018. In 2011, she and her husband, Dr. Sahin, founded Ganymed Pharmaceuticals, which they later sold to Astellas Pharma Inc. Dr. Türeci is the Chair and a founder of the charitable organization Ci3, which is specialized in individualized immune intervention as a part of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. She is also a private lecturer and is an internationally sought speaker in her field. She has received many academic recognitions and awards and was named the Person of the Year in 2020 by the Financial Times (Wikipedia).

A Remarkable Woman: A Brief Biography

According to Wikipedia, Dr. Türeci was born on March 6, 1967 in Lastrup, Turkey. Her father was a surgeon in Istanbul and her mother was a biologist. They moved to Germany, where she became a German citizen. She made her Abitur in Saarland and went on to receive her medical degree and PhD at the University of Saarland in 1992. She became a recognized expert in the field of immunology, active in the academic sphere, research and ultimately as an entrepreneurial talent.

Her husband, Dr. Sahin, was born in Turkey, and his family moved to Cologne when he was four. His parents both worked in the Ford factory there. Dr. Sahin grew up and studied medicine. He earned his PhD in 1993 at the University of Cologne for his work in immunotherapy in cancer cells. 

She married her husband and business partner in 2002. After selling the medical firm Ganymed in 2016, which they had founded together in 2001, the pair became the wealthiest Turkish Germans in the country. In the meantime, BioNTech was developing a wider range of technologies, including using messenger RNA, to treat cancer. “We want to build a large European pharmaceutical company’, Dr. Sahin is quoted as saying in an interview with a Wiesbaden newspaper. Currently the company has over 1,800 employees internationally. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has invested $55 million in its work to treat H.I.V. and tuberculosis. 

Today Drs. Türeci and Sahin live with their teenage daughter in a modest apartment near their work. These billionaires  ride their bikes to work every day and do not own a car. According to an article from November of 2020 in The New York Times, Dr. Türeci had originally had ‘early hopes of becoming a nun’. Perhaps today we can look at her as a medical Mother Teresa for her great achievements in helping the world fight back the COVID-19 pandemic with amazing modesty and highest ethical standards.

Sources: BioNTech website, Wikipedia, ‘The Husband-and-Wife Team Behind the Leading Vaccine to Solve Covid-19’, The New York Times, Nov. 20, 2020, by David Gelles

Retired Palatinate Army Nurse Back in AD

Retired Army Nurse Lois Borsay Returns to Help With COVID

For the month of February, the Palatinate Chapter would like to highlight the work of one of our members, Lois Borsay, who has returned to active duty as a nurse to help in the Army clinics here on German bases.

In her own words….

‘My job is with the Army’s Public Health Department. We are responsible for 5 Army Health Clinics and a large NATO training area. Many of our soldiers are here for training from many different parts of Germany and other NATO countries.  This training lasts several weeks to many months which makes quarantine and contact tracing a challenge. We are training volunteers on how to do contact tracing for those who test positive.  I am located in the state of Bavaria in southern Germany. Bavaria has strict guidelines for travel, masks, quarantine and testing. I’m not doing direct patient care, but work more on policy, planning & education.  It’s busy, exhausting but interesting. It’s what I’m trained to do. Our team here is excellent and I’m honored to be a small part of helping get the vaccine program organized so we can vaccinate as many as possible. 

‘One of the first challenges regarding my return to AD, is this whole business of wearing a uniform again. I made a quick stop at the Army uniform store figuring I could just grab what I needed and go. However, many things have changed besides the pattern of the camouflage..it’s now called OCP ( Operational Camouflage Pattern adopted in 2015). The outfit is now called ACU (Army Combat Uniform) not the BDU (Battle Dress Uniform) I remember!  I didn’t even know what to buy, much less where to put all the patches. Then there is the question of Velcro or sew-on name tapes? Who knew there are 3 different boot manufacturers! Thankfully,  Dave came to my rescue. A retired nurse living in Germany, Dave works in the military clothing store to keep his base privileges. He knows his stuff & realized I needed more help than my time schedule would allow that day. He insisted I return when I had more time…much more time! He clearly saw the challenge ahead!


 After 2 hours of being fitted & dressed like Cinderella for the camouflage ball, I left with a pair of Reebok boots, 2 package sets of T-shirts, a cover (hat), an olive skullcap made of fleece, a fleece jacket and a set of ACU’s with an assortment of patches. Dave made sure I knew where to put them and gave specific instructions on how to wash (cold water only & turned inside out), dry & hang up everything because the fabric is treated with insect repellent. At least I had all of the pieces & parts.

    It was a good thing we were in lockdown mode because I looked pretty funny clomping around the house in sweat pants and brown suede combat boots in order to ‘break them in’ before I actually had to report for duty. I’m sure my DAR ancestor, COL William Nelson, is looking down from above just shaking his head!’

Good luck to Lois and many thanks from the Palatinate Daughters for your very important engagement in helping with the Corona crisis here in Germany!

The Founding of the DAR Palatinate Chapter

How the Palatinate Chapter was Formed and Established

By Ramona Kechelen, Organizing Regent, DAR Palatinate Chapter

The Palatinate chapter was founded on April 15, 2000, with Ramona as its Organizing Regent. Here is the story of our chapter, as told by Ramona. In April of 2020 we would have held a celebration to mark our 20th anniversary, but Corona led to a different set of circumstances…

Nonetheless, here is a transcript of Ramona’s recent Zoom meeting with a DAR chapter in Michigan, where she was invited speak and share her experiences through her 60 years of DAR membership, first in the Tillicum Chapter in  Seattle and then here in the Palatinate.

Take the floor Ramona:

“In 1998, the National Chairman of Units Overseas, Carol Rilling (now Honorary Vice President General)  was convinced and enthusiastic about forming new chapters. She had lived at Ramstein as a military spouse.   In 1990, I  had started teaching for Department of Defense Dependent Schools in Germany, continuing my subscription to the DAR Magazine to keep connected.  As a military wife,  I had been welcomed and invited to attend and participate in chapters in California, Tennessee, Virginia and North Carolina.  I learned a lot, even paged at Continental Congress,  but was never able to serve as a chapter officer. 

 An  article in the Stars and Stripes newspaper explained that a new DAR chapter was being formed.   I replied … and made the 3 hour drive  on the Autobahn  (sometimes at 100 mph) to get to Ramstein and meet the ladies who were having preliminary meetings in September of 1999.  Unexpectedly, the Organizing Regent’s husband received  orders and they were leaving.  They asked me  to serve.

I had expected to be supportive, but keep my 40 years of membership  in Tillicum Chapter in Seattle so they would not lose a member.  Their reply was “DO IT” because it would not go against their membership count if serving as an Organizing Regent.  I had begun as a C.A.R. member in Seattle,  served as Washington State President, then joined DAR in 1960.     All those experiences were so valuable and we started “practicing” the opening ritual even before we were official.   The Palatinate Chapter   was officially formed on April 15th, 2000.  

We started selecting activities and service projects such as Conservation and providing JROTC medals for the ten American high schools on US bases.  We soon learned of the location in the Old South Cemetery in Munich of two brothers whose father formed the Deux Ponts Regiment that included  many Germans from Zweibruecken in the Palatinate area near Ramstein.  That unit served under Rochambeau at the Battle of  Yorktown.  Wilhelm and Christian von Forbach led the attack on Redoubt 9 while Alexander Hamilton was injured taking Redoubt 10, causing Cornwallis to surrender.

 We  began participating in a Memorial Day ceremony of a single WWII  GI , Lt. John Rahill, who had asked to be buried where he fell. His grave represents the thousands who lost their lives on that hillside in France, near the German border, in the liberation of France. Later,  the Project Patriot  focused on Landstuhl Regional Medical Center at Ramstein Air Force Base .     

Our first bylaws  incorporated  Associate Membership. We were thrilled when we  reached  100 Associates, which provided us with a budget beyond  our own dues. (“Fundraisers”  are not possible with customs and taxes in a foreign country).  Our first Associate Member Chair maintained her membership in New Hampshire. She suggested that we send a Christmas greeting with a tree ornament, as a thank you for their valuable support.  That tradition has  continued. Today we send out over 700 cards every year!

 We continue to welcome and encourage prospective  members, transfers in, members residing in Germany temporarily, to be active participants in our chapter.  Our Registrars are kept very busy with new applications, transfers in and transfers out (like a revolving door).  The challenge facing a chapter that is dependent on military spouses as members is that they are usually here for only 2 or 3 years, and then get orders to leave to a new assignment.   There were some meetings where there were more prospective members than actual members.  For each one who left and returned to the States, one or two new ladies appeared.  We now have about ten members who are permanent residents. These women represent the core of our active members in our charitable work.

 Since 2000,  at least one member from our chapter has attended Continental Congress each year  providing popular items for the  Units Overseas Luncheon and International Bazaar. Many friends and Associates help us organize and sell at our sales table every year, for which we are extremely grateful. 

That is a glimpse of how Palatinate Chapter was formed and established.”

We are proud to represent the NSDAR in Germany and hope that, with your support, we can continue to make a meaningful contribution to the NSDAR goals of  supporting American patriotism, education and historical preservation in this country.